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Scaphognathus (meaning "tub jaw") was a pterosaur that lived around Germany during the Late Jurassic. It had a wingspan of about 1 meter. At present it is known from only two specimens, both of which originated in the Kimmeridgian-age Solnhofen Limestone. Physically it was very similar to Rhamphorhynchus, albeit with notable cranial differences.

For one, Scaphognathus had a proportionately shorter skull (4.5 in) with a blunter tip and a larger antorbital fenestra. Its teeth oriented vertically rather than horizontally, 18 of which were in the upper jaw and 10 in the lower. It may have had a much larger brain than most reptiles. The areas of the brain connected with sight and movement were particularly well developed

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